Intelligent Transport Systems
The technical developments in Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) are quite impressive. Nonetheless, their introduction seems to be rather slow. The European Commission promotes that process through their ITS Directive (2010/40/EU) and ITS Action Plan. Rapp has actively supported the European Commission through several studies and the coordination of individual tasks within the framework of the ITS Action Plan. Also with other clients Rapp has been working on exciting ITS projects for many years.
SVI – Transport of the future 2060
The SVI research package “Transport of the Future 2060” aims to develop a visionary view of the long-term development of transport in Switzerland. Several parallel subprojects are supposed to deliver the (coordinated) building blocks in order to build three future scenarios “Evolution”, “Revolution” and “Devolution”. The research package is divided into seven sub-packages.
Rapp works together with partners on two sub-packages. Sub-package “SVI 2017/003” deals with technological change and its consequences for mobility and transport. The results of this sub-package are intended to identify the relevant key technologies with their drivers, obstacles and interdependencies, to assess the impact of these key technologies on transport infrastructure, supply and demand, and to develop meaningful sets of key technologies for each of the three future scenarios. Sub-package “SVI 2017/006” deals with new types of service (organisation and diffusion). The aim is to derive conclusive organizational forms, that support a desired diffusion scenario, as well as to assess the consequences for Swiss mobility providers and to derive recommendations for a future institutional framework.
Congestion tail detection: quality requirements and test field
It is generally assumed that unexpected queue ends on congested motorways pose a threat to road users, for which they should be warned during their trip.
Within the framework of a research study for the Federal Highway Research Institute (BASt), Rapp defined minimum quality requirements for the detection of congestion tail data and developed a concept for a test field on congestion tail detection to enable the practical evaluation of the requirements.
It is regularly demonstrated that vehicles can already be operated autonomously today, with the data communication taking place via the 5 GHz band.
Rapp presented the state of affairs on automated driving for the German Ministry of Transport (BMVI) and analysed the possible effects of automated driving on microwave-based toll collection. Important was the clear presentation of the connections between CEN DSRC, ITS-G5 and WLAN and the recommendation to play an active role in the discussion on the protection of microwave-based tolling technology.
Platooning in Switzerland
The Federal Roads Office (FEDRO) considers the number of traffic jams on the national road network as a central problem and defined traffic management measures to improve traffic flow. FEDRO has assigned Rapp with a study on the measure “Evaluation of the use of distance-keeping systems and platooning”.
The aim of the study is to identify potential opportunities and risks associated with the use of distance-keeping systems (ACC, CACC), including platooning (driving in convoy with short gaps between the vehicles based on interconnected vehicles) in Switzerland. In addition, the fundamentals shall be elaborated for assessing possible requirements for pilot projects in truck platooning and for defining the need for action to create the required technical and infrastructural conditions. From the results (literature study, interviews, analyses) conclusions were formulated for the use of platooning in Switzerland.
PRAUTOCOL – Certification of automated cars and their drivers
The research project “PRAUTOCOL”, led by the HAN University of Applied Sciences in the Netherlands, focuses on the certification of the driver and the car in the area of automated/autonomous driving with the aim to strengthen the position of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The impact of automated systems in the car exceeds the car as a system. The driving tasks and responsibilities of the driver and thus the necessary competencies of the user of a self-driving car will tremendously change in (near) future. One of the work packages within PRAUTOCOL, WP2, therefore focuses on licensing the driver.
Rapp is work package leader of WP2 and also contributes to knowledge development within WP2. The main objective of WP2 is the development and evaluation of tools (e.g. information and possibly task support) to support human examiners who need to certify drivers of automated vehicles. PRAUTOCOL especially focuses on SAE automation level 3, by first exploring level 1 and 2 systems. Moreover two use cases have been defined: Highway Driving (esp. for light vehicles) and Automated Docking (for heavy vehicles).
Heavy Vehicle: On-Board Weighing
Overloaded vehicles on the road are a significant problem and negatively affect traffic safety, road damage, environment and competition.
Rapp carried out a feasibility study for Transport & Environment on a mandatory and integrated weighing system in trucks, taking into account technical and organisational aspects and costs.
Open in-vehicle platform
In addition to legally required equipment such as tachographs or tolling devices, many trucks use voluntarily installed devices for navigation or vehicle fleet management. Presumably more obligatory equipment will follow in the future. This variety of electronic devices with very different operating concepts, safety requirements and legal foundations is inefficient and costly.
On behalf of the European Commission, Rapp has examined in a number of projects (a.o. ITS Action Plan 4.1) whether and how many of these devices can be combined. The objective should be to define obligatory equipment in the law in a way that they are "platform-appropriate", so that they can be installed together with other applications on an open technical platform in the vehicle. Our recommendations were well received and taken into account, for example, in the revision of the legislation on the digital tachograph.
Liabilities regarding ITS applications and services
If the interplay of several actors (vehicle manufacturers, equipment manufacturers, telecommunication operators, road infrastructure operators, etc.) is required, as is the case, for example, with cooperative systems and automated driving, liability issues can be a barrier to the introduction of ITS applications and services. The aim of the project was to examine this with regard to selected applications and services and to define measures on the basis of legal, organisational and technical findings.
Rapp analysed on behalf of the European Commission (ITS Action Plan 5.2) the current legal situation in several EU member states as well as the US together with a law firm, collected the requirements of the stakeholders on the basis of a stakeholder survey and during a stakeholder workshop and formulated recommendations for the European Commission.
Click here - audio file: ITS liabilities (in German)
C-ITS Compliance Assessment Framework for ANZ
In the very near future, vehicles will interact with each other and with the road infrastructure as “Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems”, C-ITS. It is expected that C-ITS will significantly improve road safety, traffic efficiency and driving comfort, and expand the potential for automated vehicles. The deployment of C-ITS is still in its infancy. Esp. authorities are busy creating the conceptual framework for testing and approval of C-ITS, so that all end devices will meet the agreed technical standards and be safe, interoperable and suitable for the intended use. Rapp has worked out a recommendation to Austroads regarding the conceptual framework for testing C-ITS in Australia and New Zealand (ANZ). The report contains the key findings from the literature review and various stakeholder consultations and describes the possible options as well as the steps for the further development and introduction of the conceptual framework.
The final report can be downloaded at the following link: austroads.com.au/publications/connected-and-automated-vehicles/ap-r585-18
The webinar on the completion of the project can be accessed via the following link: austroads.com.au/publications/connected-and-automated-vehicles/web-r585-18